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After the declaration of Independence of Brazil in 1822, the Palace of Saint Christopher became the residence of Emperor Pedro I and the seat of the Brazilian Empire. Its architecture is tied to the symbolic display of centralized power and hierarchy. It remained the official imperial residence under D. Pedro II. In 1891, the building was used by Brazilian politicians writing the first Republican Constitution of the country. The building was converted into a National Museum after this event, with one of the largest collections of the Americas of natural history and anthropology. The collection encompassed pieces of archeology, ancient Egypt, Greco-Roman cultures, pre-colombian cultures, among others. In 2018, an estimated 20 million artifacts were lost to the flames, including the oldest human fossils ever found in South America.

After years of budgetary reduction by neoliberal policies, one of the causes that led to its destruction, the National Museum suffers from a deficit in funding. This fundraising will be used to help finance the reconstruction of the museum.